How many Muslim has the Philippines?

***The statement that is indicated in this documents was an activities during my college years. Much further research is needed for those learners who wanted to know much more about this topic. This is a mere fragments of its totality.****

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Introduction:

The Philippines in the past few years has not yet reach its population as what we have today. The religion Islam was reduced in  numbers when the Spaniards conquered the Philippines, and the Christianity increased. Many of the Muslim people in the Luzon and Visayas had entered the religion Christianity, while Mindanao still believed in the religion Islam

Over a hundreds of years from the hands of the Spaniards, Muslim people had fought for their own rights. For about three hundred thirty three years under the power of Spaniards, Muslim people and the religion Islam stands firm. Up until American people went to the Philippines for the reasons of educating the  Filipino people, and this brought to what they called commonwealth. Since the year 1918, they’ve tried to gather some data about the Muslim people living in the Mindanao. Unfortunately, they somehow can’t get the accurate data. The decreasing of the population of Muslim was also being understood for the fact that they don’t have adequate supply causing them to look for an alternative solution to live.

This study will get you to understand the reason why Muslim people decrease their population in the year 1918 to 1939. This also include the reasons why the government can’t get the accurate data of the population in Mindanao and the year when the Christian people migrated in Mindanao.

Body:

HISTORY BOOKS YOU MIGHT GET INTERESTED

“The Land of Promise”, this is the another term for Mindanao. But do we know its meaning and why it is called this way? Maybe, most of the readers know the reason. Nevertheless, we do know the idea that Muslim people fought for so many years and yet for some reason, the freedom that they want to attain was not achieved. Even though they struggled so much to put it in realization, still it is not attainable. Muslim people were looking for the freedom they want, fighting for the same reason and for the same cause.

American regime had caused the Philippines to know the term education, as a part of implementing rules for the governance of this country. This involves the birth of the commonwealth in the Philippines. In the year 1918, the Muslim people had to compete with Christian Filipinos who immigrated in large numbers into Mindanao during those times. This massive resettlement was continued in the post war years on a similar scale from 1946 to early sixties, and reduced proportion during last decade. For this reason, the high annual average growth of non-Muslim had increased especially in the seven provinces were Muslim settled Sulu, Lanao del Sur, Cotabato, Lanao del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Palawan., and Zamboanga del Norte. These seven southern provinces in Mindanao were being settled by the Non-Muslim people. One of the possible reason was due to extreme economic necessity that has forced many Maguindanao farmers to sell their lands to adventurous people from Christian communities encroachments. Some of them was forced to retreat to the interior or to migrate to a few towns that have managed to remain predominantly Muslim.

In getting the accurate data, the people who survey here in Mindanao had a tough work and they can’t get the accurate information of the population of Muslim people living in the Mindanao. There were those people who estimated the numbers of the Muslim people, and one of them was Hilario M. Gomez in 1972, who gave a figure between four and five million, or ten or twelve percent in the Manifesto of the Muslim Independence Movement of May 1, 1968. They are the same with the estimation of Alunan C. Glang. This week Sunday magazine said that two million Filipinos or eight percent of the population followed the creed of Islam out of twenty four million people living here in the Philippines. Another estimated reported in 1968 by Antonio Isidro placed the number at 2 million or 5.4 percent of the population. In other words, all the same number was just an estimation of the total number of the Muslim people settling here in Mindanao. That’s why the United Nation Hand Book of Population Census Methods did not recommend questions on religious affiliation because of inexact and incomplete replies usually obtained. This are the reason why they can’t get the accurate data:

  1. Intrinsic to the subject itself.
  2. Compounded in some Muslim areas of the Philippines because of the hostility of the inhabitants to government personnel.
  3. Disturbed conditions in many Muslim sectors in 1970, census takers apparently sometimes made extrapolations based on extremely limited survey.
  4. The mobility of the Philippines Muslim population makes it hard to determine trends of grown or decrease. This true among the one of the major groups. The Tausug, a sea-oriented people, many of whom constantly migrate from coastal settlements in Sulu and other in Borneo, Maguindanao and Palawan.
  5. Some muslim groups overstate their numbers.

Despite of these difficulties, the Bureau of the Census and Statistics will probably yield the best approximation to serve a starting  point. There were six censuses have been taken in the Philippines since 1990. They found out that 96.7% of the Muslim population of the Philippines is to be found in seven of the southern provinces.

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  1. Sulu –with 94% of its Muslim Population
  2. Lanao del Sur –with 91.3%
  3. Cotabato- with 37.3%
  4. Lanao del Norte- with 20.4%
  5. Zamboanga del Sur –with 16.5%
  6. Palawan- with 7.2%
  7. Zamboanga del Norte- 5.1%

According to the censuses , the percentage of Muslims in the total population decreased from 4.29% to 4.23% between 1918 and 1939 and to 4.11% by 1948.This decreasing trends becomes more understandable with these reasons that follows.

  1. Low of standards of public health and sanitation.
  2. Because of ignorance and malnutrition that they are susceptible to disease.

Major cause death among the young

  1. Tuberculosis
  2. Malaria
  3. High percentage of mothers dies in child birth
  4. Less than half the children born reach adulthood, most dying in their first year of life.
  5. The young are permanently weakened by disease.
  6. Their resistance to the governmental policy in the early days of American Regime. This includes that over thousand died in the battle because of opposing the policy which is the ultimate integration of the Fil-Muslim into the body of an independent Philippines.

In short, most Muslim people were lack of knowledge in the medicine. There were no or small numbers of doctors or people who had knowledge on those acquired illnesses and the medication was out of it. In the American regime, Muslim people tried to fight them just like what they had done in the years of the Spaniards but they unfortunately being beaten that causes for a thousands of people to sacrifice their lives in the battle.

The Maguindanao were the largest Philippine Muslim group and they are to be found in Cotabato. The Census of 1970 gives a total of 424,577 Muslim for the province, but Dr. Robert B. Fox set the number for that year between 360,000 and 400,00. The censuses figure would require an average annual increase of 10.8% for each of the twelve years between 1948 and 1960. This would represent an annual increase more than three times as great as that of the annual increase of 3.4% for the whole Philippines during the same twelve-year. A 10.8% annual increase become less credible when it is noted that under wartime conditions between 1939 and 1948. The Maguindanao registered an average annual decrease of  .53 of one percent. Doctor Isidro and Saber graphically portray the situation precisely for the period 1948-1960, when the Maguindanao were supposedly be growing more than three times as rapidly as the rest of the Philippines.

In addition with the census that have done by the Bureau of the Census and Statistics, a comparison of average annual rates of increase for Muslims and non-Muslims in these provinces. It may give some indication of the general trend of population and perhaps a better approximation of the real number of Muslim in the Philippines today. This comparison of trends is given in Table 1 and 2.

TABLE 1

MUSLIM AND NON-MUSLIM POPULATION

TABLE 1

TABLE 2

PERCENT CHANGE IN MUSLIM AND NON-MUSLIM POPULATION

(Growth Unless Otherwise Indicated)TABLE 2

Summary

Therefore as a conclusion, we can say that American and commonwealth regime made the Non-Muslims settle to the Mindanao which was one of the reasons why Muslim people reduced their numbers from their homeland. Gathering the accurate data of the Muslim people was very hard to take it all because of some hitches. Medications and Medical facilities are very few to their places because of lack of knowledge and very few materials that made other Muslim perished due to an illness, especially the young children. If only Muslim people were well aware about the scenario and understand the entire situation they were in, the whole thing will change. Maybe those young children who have lived and suffered might have the chance to live the life of being a child on their own.

As a part of the Muslim people living here in Mindanao, I could say that I’m proud to my ancestors because of the courage, hope and bravery they had shown to attain the victory they wanted for themselves against the Spaniards. However, I could not blame them for selling their properties just to survive.

Even though Mindanao is called as “The Land of the Promise” I could say that someday, the Muslim people in the past decades and their descendants will have the freedom that they are aiming for. From so many years of fighting and sacrificing everything for the goal they want to achieve, in God’s time, it will happen.

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Licensure Examination Experience

There were articles I had written the last few months ago about the story how I ended myself in pursuing education as one of my interest. Now, I’ve experienced so many things along with it, and some of these were already in scripted in some pages of this website. So, here I am, going to tell my experience on how I go through a long series of process in order to reach the point where I need to attend the LET examination and ended up taking them.

I’ve started my review last 2014 of April, along with my friends at St. Louis Review Center. I thought of reviewing at that said center for me to recall everything that I did learned when I was in my elementary and secondary age. Being in the confinement of the office for almost 5 years, it take my basic knowledge away from this memory of mine. Replenishing those information is needed, especially now that aging process is lurking along the way. The memory itself is starting to deteriorate if it is not well trained, and reviewing is the best option to suppress the unexpected events when someone is planning to take the LET Examination. This is why I took the risk in segregating my time for this task. It take my Saturday and Sunday time to go there and review. I was pleased by the schedule because we were mixed together with those freshly graduate of some universities/colleges within Iligan City. In those time, I was hoping not to be mixed up together with the meranao students, because as far as everyone’s know, nobody know about my plan. I guess, I am one of those typical person who undergone with a secondary courses and now kind of hesitating to tell everyone else, unless they did pass the examination mentioned. For almost 4 months, I’ve been busy with my work and my schedule for review. The time was ticking so swiftly that I almost forgot my other worries. God has been so kind to us since the examination were being moved from July 27, 2014 to August 17, 2014. There might be a reason for this event to happen besides the reason from the Catholic side why the exam ended up in a cancellation. This gave us plenty of time to prepare more in the exam. Along those days, I did realized that I didn’t made a mistake in reviewing at the said center, because it did gave me time to read, relearn and experience about this situation.

Before the exam, we did had a hard time getting our grades to be completed because one of our teacher didn’t gave our grade on time. For this reason we’ve waited days before she did gave us, and the filing of the examination were more or less 6 days before its deadline. Upon receiving the information of the completed grades, I didn’t hesitate to be absent on the first day of working days to settle things ahead. I did go to Saint Michael College in order for me to complete everything to get my Transcript of Records. I went to the Dean requesting my TOR, and gave me some instruction to complete. In addition with the prescribed requirements, one of this was paying our balance at the review center as to get certificate coming from SLRC. Upon knowing, it revealed to us that SMC and SLRC were somehow connected with each other. Having no choice, we ended up paying 4,000. That afternoon of Monday, we submitted the certificate from SLRC, together with the signed permit at the registrar. Giving them those papers, we were informed that they will be giving us a message after our TOR has been made. After three or four hours, we were pleased upon telling us that it was already had been finished.

Three days after its completion my friends and I have decided to go at the PRC office to file our papers for the Licensure Examination. We did bring the following requirements:

  1. Original and photocopies of Transcript of Records with Special Order and Date of Graduation, with scanned pictures and with remarks “FOR BOARD EXAMINATION PURPOSE ONLY”. Graduates of government schools and institutions/programs accredited by recognized accredited agencies under the FAAP are exempted from SO. Graduates of New Schools/Degree Programs must submit School Recognition and/or Permit to operate.
  2. Original and photocopy of NSO-issued Birth Certificate (if NSO copy is not clear, bring copy from the Local Civil Registrar)
  3. For married females, original and photocopies of NSO-issued Marriage Contract (if NSO copy is not clear, bring copy from Local Civil Registrar)
  4. Two (2) passport size colored with white background and complete name tag.
  5. Current Community Tax Certificate (Cedula)
  6. Other specific requirements are required by the Commission or the Professional Regulatory Board.

We did get there early at around 6 in the morning and hoping to be the first in line. However, arriving there after 2 hours of travelling, there were so many people in lined. I ended up getting 2k plus as a number. We’ve waited outside for one hour to be called. At that day many people were at PRC, some of them were renewing their license and many of the people were filing for the LET EXAM, just like us. We did get through with another line, as we get nearer to the front desk who would check our papers, we assured that our requirements were not lacking. As I was being entertained that moment, I was praying that everything about my documents were all complete. It didn’t take us much time for that clearing and all three of us were finished after paying a full amount of 900. The cashier told us that the NOA and the receipts will be given to us a week before the examination. We left a relief, and relaxed from the travel and the stress from filing our documents with a nice window shopping at Limketkai Shopping Center.

More than 30 days before the examination, all of us were tensed for the exam. We continued our review during Saturday and Sunday. Whereas the days were fast ticking, I thought of having a self-review after office. Someone did advised me to review because it’s not a 100 percent that everything in the review will come up. Days after days after days, I continued the self-review. I know that I didn’t totally focus, but I do know that I did review as much as my interest arises. I believe that forcing yourself too much will do no good. There were so many things playing along inside my mind along the way. I did tried to counter those negative thoughts that encircling my mind, by thinking of doing the best as I can to motivate myself. I did set up from these brain of mine that I need to pass the exam as to not waste my time from studying for 6 months plus 3 or 4 months of review. I already used up my time and energy doing this things along the way. As the days passed, there encountered changes happen, and one of this were my office schedule. I was assigned at Marawi Service Desk by my own agency, and then later on had an office scheduled of Sunday to Thursday, which caused me to decide to move my review from Saturday-Sunday to Friday-Saturday, as I’ve asked permission to Sir Ken about my plan, he told me that it’s too late for me to do this since the exam was getting nearer. For this reason, I don’t have the choice but to review only on Saturday, and excuse myself during Sunday.

Calendar

Seventeen days before the examination, I’ve decided to go to Cagayan de Oro to get my NOA together with my friends NOA. Since I was there, I already reserved for a hotel for us to stay in. I went to Will Shire HOTEL to settle for a reservation, but unfortunately they were already full on those dates I did mentioned. I was left with no choice and make a reservation at AMAREA HOTEL which is fortunately did accommodate us for the reservation on those two dates I did prefer. I paid 795 for a one day reservations, and the next day as per mentioned will be paid on the exact date after Friday.

Amarea Hotel

Amarea Hotel

NOA for LET

NOA for LET

Receipts

Receipts

The hours were ticking and the days were changing. As I crossed those days from my calendar before August 17, I did feel tensed each day. When the day arrived, it was August 15, 2014, me and my friend went ahead in order to catch Friday prayer at CDO. We’ve stayed there for two days, while two of my friends had a rigorous flash back of all the review we did back then. As for me, I choose to relax. We all did aside from reviewing were window shopping, buy foods, and more important one is sleeping. We did all this just to relax from our wary minds. Before the exam, I and my friend went to our designated room as to know where our room is before the examination. The PRC already written the things to be needed before the exam.

A Reminder

A Reminder

Rooms at Bulua Nat'l High School

Rooms at Bulua Nat’l High School

Front Gate

Front Gate

Rooms

Set for the examinee

Set for the examinee

Studying Tandem...

Studying Tandem…

We didn’t noticed that the day was up. We wake up ourselves at around 3:30 in the morning; review a little bit, eat our breakfast, take a bathe and prepare our things. I was the one who got out since I was assigned at BULUA NATIONAL HIGHSCHOOL which was far from the center. I was so thankful that when I got out at the hotel, a taxi was already have been there, and asked him to get me at the school I’ve been assigned to. Upon arriving, there were so many people in waiting to open the gate. I’ve seen one of my acquaintance, who was familiar to me, but never knew her name. She questioned me while we were both waiting, but it was so fortunate that a friend of mine was there, calling for me. I was relief when she does that because that girl I meet were starting to ask about my workplace, which I don’t want to be much open about it when I am in different situation. We talked with Ms Faida together with her friend about so many things in regard with the LET exams. While waiting there for almost 45 minutes, the door opened and each of us went to our designated room were assigned to. I was amazed the first day I saw my room assignment since all the numbers in seeing were all in 17. Date was August 17, my room was 17, seat number 17 and my name was written on page 17. What a coincidence, I say!

All in Seventeen!

All in Seventeen!

The schedule is all written in this way:

Schedule for the Examination

Schedule for the Examination

General Instruction for the examinee

General Instruction for the examinee

The examination went well after hours of taking them. I could say, I did well on the General and Professional Education but the Specialization were kind of a nose bleed. From the 2,500 test questions we did take at the review center for this specialization area, I ended up only three question similar from our review and everything I did used was stock knowledge. As I review my test paper for second time around that day, I was confident that I did my best, and the only thing left for me is to hope for a positive result for the examination. For those people who is reading this blog of mine. Wish me and everyone who take the test a Good luck!

On Becoming a Teacher

My Concrete Experience

  1. Who am I as a person? Do I have personal qualities that would make me a better teacher someday?
  2. With the use of the checklist find out your personal characteristics which would help you make become a good teacher. The qualities listed are few of the many attributes needed but the list given you would suffice.

Look into yourself very well and answer each item very honestly. All your answers are correct, so you do need to worry.

AM I THIS PERSON?

Below are indicators of personal qualities which may describe you. Place a ___ mark on the blank before each item if the indicator gits you most of the time or an ___ mark if the description does not fit you most of the time.

Chart 1

Chart 1

Number of checks in each cluster (Min-1 to Max 5)

Chart 2

Chart 2

My Observations

                Your concrete experience, enabled you to describe, what you are as a person. The qualities reflect who you are. Make a similar observation of ten active teachers in a school. Your observation will be done through a survey and will produce empirical evidences. This observation method will enhance your skills to collect data, like when you doing research.

                You will be provided with a Survey Checklist for you to produce 10 copies for your 10 respondent teachers. (They are on the last pages of this workbook). Make a proper request from these teachers who will become your respondents.

Chart 3

Chart 3

The Observed Information

Procedure:

  1. To get the average, add the scores of the ten teachers and divide by 10.
  2. Look at the legend in your own checklist, and determine the description of the average.

Study the results.

Questions:

 

  1. Which of the twelve attributes is the highest among the teachers?
  • Among the 12 attributes, buoyancy is the one that excel from among the high description with point one as a difference.
  1. Which of the twelve attributes is the lowest among the teachers?
  • The self-confidence is having the lowest among the 12 with 3.5 as an average.
  1. How many teachers are low in emotional stability?
  • Teacher Number 3 was the only one who has the lowest grade in terms of emotional stability.
  1. How many teachers are high in compassion?
  • Most of the teachers already reach the very high in compassion; meanwhile two of them didn’t reach that peek.
  1. What six attributes are found to be strong among the teachers?
  • Based on the Average of the whole attributes these six attributes are buoyancy, objectiveness, compassion, emotional stability, refinement and comparativeness with a tie total with that of Reliability
  1. What six attributes are found to be weal among the teachers?
  • As the opposite answer in number seven, these six attributes with a weak average are the self-confidence, self-motivation, intelligence, pleasantness, and comparativeness as well reliability can also be consider as one of them.
  1. What interesting observations can you spot from the other data not asked?
  • The cooperativeness in answering the questionnaire makes me so thankful to the teachers who answered it wilfully.
  • Happy. This is the one factor that I could consider that would bring your class in a good atmosphere and soothing for learning because learners drawn with this kind of aura.

Use the information from your personal results and those of the ten teachers in making your reflections that follow.

My Reflections

                After studying the results of your teacher survey, write down your reflection on the following situations reported to have happened in the school setting.

  1. Why are some teachers reported to have bumped a learner’s head on the wall or made a child swallow scratch paper or pencil filings? What attribute do you think is low for this teacher?
  • Emotional Stability. Based on the checklist under this attribute, it is all stated there the things that relates with a teacher’s temper. Once a teacher doesn’t have this kind of trait, they tend to do this without thinking too much. We cannot avoid losing our temper in some action as a person, but the thing is, we need to place them in an appropriate place. For this reason, a teacher should act and be more or less a mother that can stop their children without putting them in too much pressure. They are a child, making them swallow scratch paper or pencil filings as form of punishment will just make them loose their confidence that would affect them in the future.
  1. Why do you think some teachers are better loved by students than others?
  • In order to attract students, you need to have a heart and a certain attitude that would attract them. From among the attributes, I would say a teacher need to reach a high level of COMPASSION and OBJECTIVENESS. As a teacher you need to be at your best at anytime, you need to have happy disposition and appreciate students within your class. A Happy disposition can attract people, and this is also applicable with the students. One said that children are the best one to sense the feeling of others around them. So giving them an atmosphere that give them an ease, and learn the meaning of positive living will give them a boost to make their life in a better. A better influence will also be spread to the students, who will be drawn by this kind of feeling. As a teacher, you need to be more objective. Treating a certain situation in fairness is a must, in order for them to feel of being judged fairly, and will not lose their confidence in a certain situation. Children also need to be brought up in a way that they could learn a high value of fairness, and to whom they could look up to this aside from their parents? Their teacher.
  1. If you were to choose, which personal attributes should all teachers possess? Why?
  • I would say, a teacher should have a compassion, emotional stability, and self confidence. A teacher should have a heart. What’s good of having a brain with the heart that is full of nothingness? We, human are very expressive people towards other person. This is the reason why s/he needs to reach them through kindness, and our heart needs to function in a way that could understand the human heart. In the future, we need some people who need to spread love around the people, kindness towards others and a teacher could teach that to the students. A self restrain is needed in order to reach what we want for others. Unselfishness is also a must, so anger should be put in the appropriate situation. To act kindness and the courage to control your anger, self confidence is a must. Doubting once self of acting goodness to other is a toxic why of thinking. Confidence is needed in order to implement an effective teaching to ones’ students.

My Affirmed Concepts

                After reflecting on this episode and recalling my previous subjects, I have realized that there are several concepts in the teaching profession about personal attributes. I learned that has been affirmed and confirmed, examples of which are given below:

  1. When I was a student, I look up for those teachers who taught me as someone to be always prepared, and that they are the same from inside the classroom and outside, but it was not. From this experience alone, I did observe a teacher who was very different when she handled the class from the way she acted outside. This teacher holds out a humble and weak personality outside the class as I perceive it, but when she is inside the room, she is boosting with confidence. Her teaching style is very admirable since she can hide those weaknesses when she is in front of her students. As a part of the attitudes, this self-confidence is important enough in delivering your lesson to your students in order for them to be drawn by your teaching skill. I did realize this part after observing this certain teacher, which I really appreciate the way she handle herself in front of many learners and made me think of how this thing is important.
  1. There was an instant where a teacher suddenly called out those noisy kids inside the classroom and let them ask to go outside at the school were we currently observing. This teacher does this as punishment for those noisy kids. I didn’t experienced this when I was a student myself, but I did observe this kind of treatment from a teacher back then, who uses this style to punish them. Sometimes, there are those students who really are noisy, even how a teacher disciplined and warned them, they just do it. I could not blame the teacher for doing this like of punishment due to the reason that they can no longer handle this kind of attitude in class. Adopting this kind of punishment is better than hitting the kids with eraser nor making them ate some pencil filing to make this shut,

My Future Application

                Using what I have learned in this episode, when I become a teacher, I should learn some of this attributes in order to implement this to my students. If God’s well that I’ll be a lecturer to some learners, I would like to learn this attributes and have a restrain factor with my temper when I become one. One thing that I have learned from this episode is that, teaching should have a heart. Teaching doesn’t only mean just teaching, but it is further than this kind of thing. It made me understand the real meaning of being a teacher is to have a good value within thy self as a teacher. In this way, I became more aware of what are the things I should do for myself that would be applied to my students. Starting on this day, I need to have a self evaluation, and consider this attributes to be enhanced as I go along with this line of profession. In the near future, I would love to teach kids and make them realize of those beautiful things in this world, and become more positive in life. Fate will bring us all to the places where we should be, and I am praying to Allah (swt) that if this is good for me, hope He will fulfill my desire to help myself and become a tool for a change through imparting knowledge to the young ones.

Learning Assessment Strategies

This post is based on my field study that I did conduct last three months for the year 2014. You may seem not to approve some of this idea, but please correct me if I am wrong. Most of the things contain here were based on my own opinion. I am very welcome to some ideas that you may share on this subject matter. Thank you and hope it will be a help for those people in search for the same studies.

My Tools

                As I observe a class, I will use the Observation Sheet for a more focused observation.

OBSERVATION SHEET Number 1
 

Principles of Learning Assessment Teaching Behavior of the Teacher/Learning Behavior of the Learner as Proof of the Application of the Principle of Learning
  1. Assessment is an integral part of the teaching learning process.

 

The Teacher gave out a quiz to her students worth 20 points on Basic Geometry Figure and Angles.
  1. Assessment tool/activity should match with performance objective.

 

The tool that was being used by the teacher was an objective test that blends in with the students’ performance.
  1. The results of assessment must be fed back to the learners.

 

After the quiz, the teacher let the students check the papers of their fellow classmate, and right after that, was being returned in order for the students to see their score.
  1. Teachers must consider learners’ learning styles and multiple intelligences and so must come up with a variety of ways of assessing learning.

 

While the teacher was giving out the answers to the students, she was also asking them orally before she explains them that answer to that certain question.
  1. Give some positive feedback along with not so good ones.

 

The teacher gave out a positive feedback to those students who get good grades and advice those students who didn’t do well to study more.
  1. Emphasize on self assessment.

 

Upon seeing the scores of each student themselves, they will now realize if they did study will or not. As for the result of the test, the teacher can identify her teaching if she did will or not.
  1. Assessment of learning should never be used as punishment or as disciplinary measure.

 

The Teacher’s test was not for punishment or as a disciplinary one. A verification whether the student study their lesson or not.
  1. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out-of-context drills.

 

Applicable in the real world, because they will use this basic geometry figures and angles when they go on with their studies and apply it when measuring of shapes are involved.
  1. Results of learning assessment must be communicated regularly to parents.

 

The teacher did mention that as much as she is capable of. She is indeed letting their parents know their status on their grades.

OBSERVATION SHEET Number 2
 

Principles of Learning Assessment Teaching Behavior of the Teacher/Learning Behavior of the Learner as Proof of the Application of the Principle of Learning
  1. Assessment is an integral part of the teaching learning process.

 

The teacher gave out their tentative score, and the result of their assignment for them to verify within their self if the student themselves did their best.
  1. Assessment tool/activity should match with performance objective.

 

The teacher used assignment in order to assist if the students were doing their homework, and mostly they did. However, this type of assessment is not guaranteed.
  1. The results of assessment must be fed back to the learners.

 

The teacher handed out the students’ assignment together with their score, as well as their tentative score from their exams.
  1. Teachers must consider learners’ learning styles and multiple intelligences and so must come up with a variety of ways of assessing learning.

 

That time, the teacher handed them down the result of their assignment and exam results.
  1. Give some positive feedback along with not so good ones.

 

The teacher didn’t give out any feedback to the students’ result. She just gave the result without saying anything.
  1. Emphasize on self assessment.

 

Without the feedback from the teacher, the learners are now the one to assess themselves either they do good or not.
  1. Assessment of learning should never be used as punishment or as disciplinary measure.

 

The teacher somehow doesn’t apply this harsh assessment for the student. It is more on academically.
  1. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out-of-context drills.

 

Since they are in electromagnetic as a topic, they can apply this drill when the students were curious about a certain situation that relates with this topic.
  1. Results of learning assessment must be communicated regularly to parents.

 

The teacher ask the students to hand out a 1/8 sheet of paper with the student’s name on it, in order for her to write their tentative score and give to their respective parents for them to see.

OBSERVATION SHEET Number 3
 

Principles of Learning Assessment Teaching Behavior of the Teacher/Learning Behavior of the Learner as Proof of the Application of the Principle of Learning
  1. Assessment is an integral part of the teaching learning process.

 

The teacher let the student participate in solving problem, making her aware the effectively of her teaching from her students.
  1. Assessment tool/activity should match with performance objective.

 

The teacher used oral recitations in solving the problem in front of the class that coincide with her tools.
  1. The results of assessment must be fed back to the learners.

 

Some students didn’t do well, coming up with a wrong answer, making that certain student to be aware to study the lesson more.
  1. Teachers must consider learners’ learning styles and multiple intelligences and so must come up with a variety of ways of assessing learning.

 

The teacher was driven by her motivation to teach her students, aiming for the student to be more confident and given an ease atmosphere for everyone while answering the problem.
  1. Give some positive feedback along with not so good ones.

 

The teacher was giving a complement to those students who answered correctly. For those who didn’t do well were given an encouragement to try again from the teacher herself.
  1. Emphasize on self assessment.

 

The learners’ reaction of being participative mood is an indication that they understand the lesson that was being taught to them by her.
  1. Assessment of learning should never be used as punishment or as disciplinary measure.

 

The teacher didn’t give the solving problem and letting them to discuss it as a form of punishment, but a review for the upcoming exam. The activity was beneficial for the student.
  1. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out-of-context drills.

 

They will need this lesson for further lessons, and can be applied in their daily life in a certain situation that needed equation, and not to be ignorant when they pass this kind of topic in some mathematic readings.
  1. Results of learning assessment must be communicated regularly to parents.

 

The teacher give the students’ assignment score, and their result of the examination in order for the kids to show it to their parents.

My Analysis

                What are the possible consequences on the teaching-learning process if each of the principles are not observed.

Principles of Learning Assessment Possible Consequences if Principle NOT Observed
1         Assessment is an integral part of the teaching learning process. Teacher won’t know if his/her students are learning well from his/her class.
2         Assessment tool/activity should match with performance objective. The objective of the learning will not meet if the activity/tool didn’t match. The learning objective will be useless, and more confusion for the students.
3         The results of assessment must be fed back to the learners. If this won’t be applied, the learners will assume everything, and therefore there is no room for their realization of doing better in class.
4         Teachers must consider learners’ learning styles and multiple intelligences and so must come up with a variety of ways of assessing learning. It will be unfair for those students who don’t have fast learning skills. Also, students will not develop and enhanced in their respective skills.
5         Give some positive feedback along with not so good ones. If a teacher won’t give a positive feedback the students desire to learn will not raise up.
6         Emphasize on self assessment.

 

If there is no self-assessment, then there is no room for advance learning.
7         Assessment of learning should never be used as punishment or as disciplinary measure. The learners will develop fear in the class; some student will be forced out of their will. Learning is not about coercing!
8         Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out-of-context drills. The expectation of the student will not meet. Learners definitely wanted to know if this thing will be useful or not, if it is, learning on their part will be excitement. Higher thinking skills will not be enhanced.
9         Results of learning assessment must be communicated regularly to parents. The parent will assume that their child is doing great at their school. No advice that will come out for them for their child and it will be unfair to them. No transparency and accountability to reflect on.

   My Reflections

                As a student, do I remember any incident when any of these principles was/were violated by my teachers? How did it affect my classmates and me?

  • Yes, there were some. As far as I remember, there was that one instances where in, we as a students were very noisy, the teacher can’t help it but to reach her temper in a maximum level, and out of her irritation, she gave us a quiz as a form of punishment on our part. In this, she violated the number 7 principle “Assessment of learning should never be used as punishment or as disciplinary measure.”

My Portfolio

                Present the principles of assessment of learning in a very creative way.

A-Assessment is a very important in integral part of learning.

S– School should be more aware of this part and not fall in a

S– Substandard way of learning that students aren’t that learning more.

E-Equip the students thoroughly in realizing their dreams.

S-Students are the holder of the future.

S-Self-assessment on their part will increase their thinking, analyzing, and evaluating abilities.

M-Maximum awareness for the teacher is highly needed for their learners.

E– Ensure that the best tool and knowledge is equipped by the students.

N-Note that their interest is the highly concern.

T-Teachers are the captain in building their future.

O-Observation from the administrator is needed.

F-Facts are not always on written words but also through observation.

L– Learn to be more appreciative.

E-Enhancing the students’ knowledge and skills are valuable.

A-Apply the most high caliber teaching for the learners.

R-Result of your teaching as a teacher is the future you can see.

N-Notice every single mistake you can observe and correct them with most appropriate judgment.

I-Instruct the students in a well mannered

N-Never give up on your student!

G-Go with being positive, that future will hold a better people!

LET’S CRAFT THE CURRICULUM

This post is based on my field study that I did conduct last three months for the year 2014. You may seem not to approve some of this idea, but please correct me if I am wrong. Most of the things contain here were based on my own opinion. I am very welcome to some ideas that you may share on this subject matter. Thank you and hope it will be a help for those people in search for the same studies.

My Map

                To reach my target, I should do these steps:

  1. Observe a class.
  2. Identify the curriculum design used by schools.
  3. Reflect and write my insights/learning gained from the activities.

My Tools                            

                A curriculum can be organized either horizontally or vertically. Write samples of them on the illustrations.

Horizontal

Sample Activities

TASK 1: Listen to the text. Take note of examples of intolerance discrimination and prejudice.

TASK 2: Recall the bases of evaluating the relevance and validity of ideas.

  1. Your personal observation or experience
  2. Personal interviews with knowledgeable person or authoritative sources
  3. Current publications and other reference materials.

TASK 3: Do you agree that…(Ask the student to explain his/her answer.

  1. “One reason fights are started is that one person cannot let another be different.”
  2. “We do not carry much of the prejudice and discrimination of yesteryears.”
  3. “Today we have become tolerant of others.”

 Vertical

 Sample

1st year Grammar: Use indirect discourse to report request to commands and advice.

Activities:

  • Divide the class into small groups and have them give the advice, commands or requests they would give or make in these situation (direct discourse). The other groups are to give in reported speech what was said.
  • Transformation drill on direct and indirect discourse (Imperatives: requests, commands, advice) in problem situations.

2nd year Grammar: Direct and reported Speech Giving Instructions, Commands, Request.

Activities: Transform the following direct statements to reported statements.

 3rd years Grammar: Give and follow instructions using direct and reported speech.

Activities: Round table discussion about agreeing and disagreeing in a given topic.

4th year Grammar:

  1. Make requests, commands using indirect speech.
  2. Give an advice and get things done using reported speech.

Activities

  • Changing Imperatives from direct to indirect discourse
  • Giving advice and instructions to get things done.

A spiral concept of the curriculum provides for both horizontal (widening of knowledge) and vertical (deepening of knowledge) aspects of the curriculum design simultaneously. The figure below shows the concept of horizontal and vertical articulation from preschool to adult.

hv

My Analysis

  1. Examine the Basic Education Curriculum. What aspect do you want to modify. Why?
  • The Basic Education Curriculum that was mentioned from the facts that I did read contains a very concise and direct way of handling students in relation to their own learning, it almost cover all aspect of developing the kids into a rightful citizen of the Philippines. However, from all that details given in the said curriculum, I guess there is something that should be addressed that I want it to be modified in this kind of curriculum. I wanted to give an indication on the objective of this curriculum. I would like to add and give a big importance on the spiritual aspect of the students. Since, I am a Muslim born, and my knowledge in relation to my religion is not wide enough, and for this reason there is lacking in me that taught me the importance of God in our life. In the part of the students, while they are young it is an opportunity to teach them religion in a high regard and integrate it with every lesson.
  1. What curriculum models do you prefer? Why?
  • From the three designs that were mentioned in the book, I prefer Problem-Centered Design, which draws on social problems, needs, interest and abilities of the learners. I love to implement this kind of design in a certain curriculum because of its salient feature that tries to let the students’ abilities blossom into a full realization. Students today don’t like to spoon feeding type of learning; they want challenges in a certain manner, something new that they can set their motivation on. Creating such atmosphere will give them a boost to realize their realization on a certain act. Through this kind of curriculum, the learner will be totally introduce to a more real life situation that will not caught unprepared in the future they want partake.

My Reflections/ My Insights

Reflection

 My Portfolio

Make an illustration of any of the three curriculum design models. Be sure to incorporate the salient features of the design.

The multimedia-oriented Problem-Based Learning curriculum model

last

WHAT’S THE CURRICULUM MADE OF?

This post is based on my field study that I did conduct last three months for the year 2014. You may seem not to approve some of this idea, but please correct me if I am wrong. Most of the things contain here were based on my own opinion. I am very welcome to some ideas that you may share on this subject matter. Thank you and hope it will be a help for those people in search for the same studies.

My Map

For this concept, go through the following steps.

  1. Interview a school administrator / faculty about how they concertize their school’s vision and goals into the curriculum.
  2. Visit a school and find out how they attain the aims of elementary, secondary and tertiary education.
  3. Interview one or two students and ask them their school’s vision / mission.
  4. Record the different methods. Strategies that they employed to attain their school’s objectives

My Tools

                For this Episode, visit a school / university or get a copy of the school brochure. Copy the school / university’s vision, mission and goals on this page.

VISION

A Globally Competitive Institution of Higher Learning. Distinguished by its commitment to the total development of man through quality education. Islamic values and Advance learning concepts, methods and systems.

MISSION

 The RC-AL Khwarizmi International College shall provide high quality of advance, professional and technical education to Muslims and other youths in the Philippines thereby serving as a catalyst of Development of the Muslim Communities especially in the ARMM through instruction research and extension services.

My Analysis

  1. How important is the school’s vision, mission, and goals in designing the curriculum?
  • In human life, a goal/plan should be created in order to have his/her guide on how her/his life supposed to be or how s/he wants it to be. A curriculum should be in the same status. An objective is needed in order to direct the change in behaviour of the students which is the aim of learning, to change a person to a better citizen. A curriculum should entail this, and in order to create a path for a certain objective, they need to create a vision that redirects the institutions would be like to be in the future. A mission that aims the student on what they will become after being educated, and a goal that tends to set the intents of those things to be accomplished.
  1. What methods and strategies were employed by the school community to realize these goals?
  • As per observed at their institution, they are providing all the necessities that the students needs, for them to learn in an ease environment. Other than this, they mostly employed teachers who are highly qualified and well motivated to teach the learner what they supposed to know. The administrators were also doing as much as they could to communicate some educators outside the Philippine in order to send the highly qualified students to the United States of America to learn more. In terms of their students, they seem to be vibrant kids, full of enthusiast. Confidence can be sense from them and inside the class; they wear a brimming energy of interest in learning.
  1. How did the students manifest that they have internalized their vision, mission and goals?
  • As seen in the third year pearl, students were giving out a well mannered attitude as model students. You can sense how well they put/pose their self in a more professional way even they were just a third year student. The principal, Ms. Imelda Mamangconi was always praise this set of group for being doing well in their academic status, and it can also be seen in the observation we did see on that day. Due to excellence that they are projecting, some of them were given the opportunity to be sent in the USA to learn further.

My Reflections/My Insights

                 Curriculum is a life blood of education as I perceive as I’ve learned gradually in Educ 15s. The important aspect in learning. Upon creating this so called curriculum. Administrator of a certain school should implement their mission, vision and objective as bases in making/creating good curriculum. The administrators have this responsibility in developing such matter because they are dealing with the interest of their learner, which could affect their whole future.

                The school that we did observe were very accommodating, and even gave us permission to roam around their premises. In AKIC-SLS, we roam around in order to observe how they put this VISION, MISSION and GOALS inside the campus, however it was kind of frustrating since it wasn’t displayed anywhere the outskirt of the school except inside the learners’ classroom. So far we indeed observe three sections from elementary and secondary level. Two of the room namely Grade VI and 3rd year level display’s the VISION and MISSION inside the room as a part of their decoration inside the room. However, the display of VISION and MISSION are highly advice to place these aspects about the school inside the premises of the campus in order to be transparent to its reader especially for those parents. Furthermore, the school should as well put the GOAL/OBJECTIVE inside the campus and in the classroom. This school failed to implement this important aspect in promoting the school, as well as instilling to the young minds of their children for guidance throughout their school life.

Look Deeper into the Concepts, Nature and Purposes of the Curriculum

This post is based on my field study that I did conduct last three months for the year 2014. You may seem not to approve some of this idea, but please correct me if I am wrong. Most of the things contain here were based on my own opinion. I am very welcome to some ideas that you may share on this subject matter. Thank you and hope it will be a help for those people in search for the same studies.

My Enriching Activities

If you are to design a curriculum for your own school, what are the things you need to consider? Accomplish the graphic organizer below.

 fs4

My Analysis

  1. Why do we need to consider the traditional and progressive points of view of curriculum?
  • As a part in learning, we need to consider tradition and progressive point of view of curriculum since it is being used mostly inside the school. If we are going to observe a certain class identifying what can kind of teaching a teacher’s act, we can easily determined what kind of curriculum he/she is using. Through this, we can easily understand the meaning of this two, and upon applying this, we can easily tell which is more effective in student’s learning.
  1. How do the different educational philosophies relate to the curriculum in the schools you visited? Cite examples /situations?
  • The educational philosophy is a very important in the curriculum in the schools because it gives guide for the curriculum of the school to follow. Without a philosophy seems to be like an empty shell. These philosophies become the “window” to the world and “compass” in life. These can be determined as the blue print of a certain teacher or in the curriculum as a whole in the school.
  1. Why is there a need to revise the curriculum from time to time?

  • There is a need to revise the curriculum from time to time because society’s values and needs change over time. In the fast movement of the world today, every interest of every child is shifting or evolving as the times moves. The need of our society is becoming more demanding more than the previous years. Let site an example, during the 1950s, there was lot more emphasis on the home economics and industrial arts type of things, more emphasis on simply memorizing facts and rules. Nowadays, with technology shifts, and an economy that is base on different skills, if we had the same curriculum, it would be a catastrophe. Curricula have changed to meet the different needs that we have now.

My Reflections /My Insights

                After interviewing a faculty of a school, and searched about these two kinds of curriculum, I could say that both of this two are very different when it is applied. Mostly, in our changing world today, students are becoming more innovative. They want to participate, give their opinion on a certain subject, try different experiences, and do a lot more. A mere traditional curriculum will not simply give them the edge of doing what they expect to fulfil while they are in school.

There is that certain school that students were somehow complaining due to this traditional curriculum. They’ve mentioned that this academic curriculum was dreary as well as remote. According also to them, they were exposed to a situation of listening to recitations only. Lead discussions were a nightmare. Simply it is kind a boring type of learning for them.

However, on the progressive curriculum, it is a type of curriculum accompanied a practical type of education that was even more pleasant as well as interesting in the students. A type of curriculum that was in a position to offer education that was centred to the interest of the child. They find this more interesting since they could voice out what they intended to share. Being facilitated by the teachers, the students can do the task in accordance with their own likings. They can learn more through application. From this testimony, we can assume that many of students now are truly evolving, and administrative schools either public or private need to cope up with these changes.